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Digital issue
issue 2 - 2005
publisher Vita e Pensiero
format Digital issue | Pdf

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L’accordo di Luglio del 1993 alla prova dei fatti. Un’introduzione
by Carlo Dell'Aringa, Riccardo Leoni pages: 14 € 6.00
This introduction provides a survey of the collected papers. At the same time it develops an critical analysis designed to illustrate the file rouge which links the material included in this special issue.
Il salario tra premio di risultato e nuove pratiche di gestione delle risorse umane. Gli effetti dell’Accordo di Luglio del 1993
by Eleonora Bazzana, Annalisa Cristini, Riccardo Leoni pages: 28 € 6.00
The theoretical result according to which the wage is higher when bargaining and efficiency wages interact, is tested by estimating a formally derived wage equation on an Italian firm-level panel from 1990 to 1999. The 1993 July Agreement, which fostered the adoption of decentralised incentive mechanisms, is used as a natural experiment. The main results are the following: a) Subsequent the adoption of the 1993 Agreement, the elasticity of wages to firm profits increases from 2.6 to 3.6%; the corresponding estimated wage premium is equal to 3.6% of the average wage; b) Relative to the whole sample of firms, those that signed the decentralised contract show higher wages, more persist- ent wage dynamics but lower variable wage premia; c) For the same firms, a significant increase of the rent sharing is obtained through the diffusion of individual incentives and productivity evaluation procedures; d) a considerable bias is introduced if are not profit endogeneity and unobservable fixed effects are not accounted for.
Cambiamento istituzionale, salari e flessibilità: l’esperienza della concertazione in Italia
by Piero Casadio, Maria Lamelas, Giorgio Rodano pages: 30 € 6.00
The 1993 Income Policy Agreements (concertazione) reformed wage setting institutions in Italy. This change introduced a relevant ability in absorbing macroeconomic shocks and a curb in inflation- ary expectations, at the cost of stagnant aggregate real wages. The firm-level wage premia remained moderate and partially diffused, with an insufficient distribution of productivity gains, especially to smaller and Southern firms. On the other hand, concertazione between social partners favoured the spread of flexibility, better and before than regulation. Overall the North-South wage differentials slightly increased. Nowadays, after a few years of contrasts, Italy should resume concertazione, by mixing flexibility with a welfare state general reform
High Performance Work Systems, Industrial Relations and Pay Policies in Europe
by Carlo Dell'Aringa, Paolo Ghinetti, Claudio Lucifora pages: 26 € 6.00
The present study uses data for workplaces in all sectors of ten European countries to investigate whether firms that have introduced new forms of work organisation are more likely to use variable pay schemes. Also the role played by institutional forces and employees’ representatives is investigated. New regimes of work organisation are characterised by both new work practices – such as teams, job rotation, multitasking and flat hierarchies – and higher levels of direct participation by employees. We find that, in general, schemes of variable pay are more likely to be introduced where new work practices are in place. The presence of employees’ representatives increases the probability of variable pay, but only when they co-operate with the management in decision-making.
Collective Bargaining and Within-Establishment Pay Inequality in Italy
by Carlo Dell'Aringa, Claudio Lucifora, Nicola Orlando pages: 26 € 6.00
This paper investigates the structure of within-establishment wage inequality in Italy, using linked employer-employee data (European Structure of Earnings Survey). The effect of work organi- sation practices, pay policies, collective bargaining procedures and industrial relations settings are analysed in the context of wage differentials in the firm. The main findings suggest that employees’ characteristics, work organisation practices and firm size are relevant in shaping pay inequality within establishments. Decentralised bargaining is shown to be associated with higher (unconditional) within-establishment wage dispersion; however, when checking both for worker and firm heterogeneity, the association changes sign or is not (statistically) significant. Finally, when the endogenous sorting of establishments is adequately modelled, no causal effect of decentralised bargaining on within-establishment pay inequality is detected.
Regional Wage Differentials and Collective Bargaining in Italy
by Carlo Dell'Aringa, Laura Pagani pages: 22 € 6.00
This paper uses ESES (European Structure of Earnings Survey) data for 1995 in order to investigate the impact of the Italian bargaining system on regional wage differentials and on local wage dispersion. The ESES survey is a large matched employer-employee data-set containing a wealth of information regarding characteristics of both workers and firms. The main findings suggest that in the south of Italy, in specific conditions, the minimum wages established by national sectoral collective agreements oblige some firms to pay higher wages than they would have done had there been no national agreement. In addition, wage dispersion in the south is more compressed for workers covered than for workers not covered by a national collective agreement. These results can be interpreted as indirect evidence for the fact that national collective bargaining creates regional «wage floors».
Wages and Monetary Policy in Italy Before and After the Wage Agreements
by Sergio Destefanis, Giuseppe Mastromatteo, Giovanni Verga pages: 30 € 6.00
We examine the influence of the 1992 and 1993 wage agreements on the disinflation experienced in Italy through the 1990s, providing econometric estimates both for the reaction function of the Bank of Italy and for 2-digit industry wage equations. We rely on industry-level measures for the degree of indexation, and find that, after the agreements, wage setters became more forward-looking and expectations were to some extent influenced by the target rate of inflation. The relationships between wages and the other main labour market variables were not much affected by the agreements.
La determinazione dei salari in Italia: rigidità reali e nominali prima e dopo gli accordi di politica dei redditi
by Francesco Devicienti, Agata Maida, Paolo Sestito pages: 26 € 6.00
This paper estimates the extent of downward wage rigidity in Italy using a micro-econometric model and the recently released WHIP longitudinal data. The econometric approach distinguishes between downward nominal wage rigidity – i.e., the impediment to nominal wage cuts – and downward real wage rigidity – i.e., when nominal wages cannot grow by less than a minimum positive threshold. The model accounts for measurement error and flexibly specifies the counterfactual, rigidity-free wage change distribution. The period analyzed goes from the mid eighties to the end of the century, within which the 1992-1993 income agreements – with the abolition of the scala mobile – are situated. Overall, downward wage rigidity impacts on about 70% of the observations. However, in the periods following the income agreements, the impact of wage rigidity is reduced, in particular with regards to real rigidities (with a slight increase in nominal rigidities). In each sub-period, however, real rigidities prevail over nominal rigidities.
Protocollo di Luglio e crescita economica: l’occasione perduta
by Leonello Tronti pages: 26 € 6.00
The paper aims at explaining the ineffectiveness of the tripartite social pact of July 1993 (the so-called July Protocol) in fostering growth, further to curbing inflation and favouring employment. In the light of labour productivity dynamics, wage moderation after 1993 appears as a significant wage deflation. In an economy with relevant segments sheltered from international competitiveness, privatisations and wage deflation have combined in favouring rent accumulation; so that, unexpectedly, wage moderation has combined with a sensible competitive loss and with slow growth. Changes in the fundamental relationships among growth, profits, investment and employment show deterioration in the quality of new jobs and an employment-productivity tradeoff, which are discussed with refer- ence to innovation, workplace re-organisation and relational goods accumulation. Within the industrial relations system, major shortcomings can be traced to the poor engagement of social partners in preserving the credibility of the Pact. The concluding recommendations aim at resolving the incompleteness of the Protocol, and helping the Italian economy to enter the «high road» to competitiveness.