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Digital issue
issue 1-2 - 2006
publisher Vita e Pensiero
format Digital issue | Pdf

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by Luigi Campiglio pages: 2 Download
Il fallimento del mercato e del non-mercato nei servizi pubblici locali: alcuni sviluppi dalle idee di Giancarlo Mazzocchi
by Amedeo Amato, Isabella Consigliere pages: 16 Download
This article attempts to review some issues about market failures and non-market failures in the local public utilities. Considering the different regulatory regimes no one seems superior to the others. The limitation of the rate of return and price cap regulatory schemes are well known. Conditions under which franchising permits to reach first best solutions are very restrictive. Yardstick competition may obtain satisfactory results, if it is used with other regimes, and if the different situations in which enterprises work are taken into account.
Quale programma per lo sviluppo? Una nota a partire dalla dottrina sociale della Chiesa
by Simona Beretta pages: 16 Download
Catholic Social Teaching expresses the paradoxical claim that the Church «offers her first contribution to the solution of the urgent problem of development when she proclaims the truth about Christ, about herself and about man» (SRS, 41). This note discusses its implication for development programming, with reference to the Millennium Development Goals and to some consensus principles: quantitative targets, ownership, comprehensiveness and empowerment. Applying the two core principles of CST, namely personal dignity of each human being and ontological unity of the human family, the paper poses some questions about how to conceive development programming and how to effectively achieve the desired development outcome, caring about the process of getting there. This points to the need of providing not just for innovative instruments for development financing but also for institutional conditions that facilitate personal initiative and commitment to practical and concrete love for every human being.
Interessi economici, potere politico e rappresentanza parlamentare in Italia nel periodo 1948-2002
by Luigi Campiglio pages: 30 Download
The motivation of this paper is to propose a new interpretation of the relationship between economics and politics in Italy: the main results are the following. Parties’ coalition power, as measured by Shapley-Shubik index, helps to explain the governmental formation process, together with the power of passing a law. We find that the president and the prime minister exercise a significant appointment power: together with main parties’ secretaries and the Bank of Italy governor they represent the restricted power e´lite. During the first republic the confirmation power in Parliament is high, with a premium for the Christian Democratic Party: since 1994, with the second republic, the confirmation power decreases and becomes more volatile. Parliamentary professional composition suggests that the distance between political representation and electoral basis tends to increase and become more polarized. Electoral vote is retrospective and takes the economic growth of the previous legislature as the basic information
La competizione tra le città : aspetti teorici e implicazioni di politica economica
by Enrico Ciciotti pages: 14 Download
The aim of the paper it to explore the theoretical foundation of the competition among cities in order to derive policy implications for both national and local public policy makers. First we analyse the evolution of the concept of competitions among cities, starting from the static view of the central place theory (spatial monopoly) until the networking approach and the dynamic view of urban structure. In this respect, a special emphasis is given to the role of innovation in urban competition. In order to measure urban competition, the SWOT analysis is proposed and discussed. Finally the paper focus on policy instruments for increasing urban competitiveness, especially on strategic planning.
Ritorno alle Riduzioni
by Giacomo Costa pages: 21 Download
In one of his earlier articles, Giancarlo Mazzocchi argued that the Paraguay Reductions could not be considered communist since they showed an evolution towards more independent work on plots entrusted to individual families. But he did not give any evidence of this surmised evolution. Indeed, the historian Eberhard Gothein offered a compelling reason why this could not happen. Work on public and private plots had to be monitored, and it was almost impossible to monitor work performed on private plots. The Reductions can be seen as arising from an implicit contract whereby the Guarany tribes yielded sovereignty to the Jesuit leaders, in exchange for (i) safety from the Spanish colonists and (ii) subsistence. Thus subsistence for the Guaranis become a basic, public task of the Reductions. Thus considered, the «Guarany republics» do qualify as communistic. That education was also carried out publicly, thus engendering an «ethical state», is another concurrent consideration.
Lo studioso di politiche dei redditi
by Carlo Dell'Aringa pages: 18 Download
Giancarlo Mazzocchi gave important scientific contributions in the field of anti-inflationary policies. In particular he stressed the important role of incomes policy in keeping cost pressure under control. He also stressed the necessity of combining incomes policies with other instruments of economic policy, such as measures directed to improve the functioning of product and labour markets. More competitive product markets and more flexible labour markets are necessary conditions for an incomes policy to be successful. He then analysed the different methods of linking wages to productivity in a dynamic environment and he showed how a «norm» of uniform wage increases can compress wage differentials and produce negative effects on labour mobility.
Investimenti, autofinanziamento e teoria del ciclo economico
by Piero Ferri pages: 14 Download
The paper examines Mazzocchi’s contribution to the theory of business cycles, focusing the attention on the role of investment and cash flow. By referring to his very first contributions, a nonlinear model of business cycle is developed where the role of cash flow and of different dividend policy can have an impact on the fluctuations of the economy. Finally, the presence of uncertainty qualifies the results.
I modelli dell’assistenza allo sviluppo: dal financing gap al policy gap nei Paesi beneficiari
by Oscar Garavello pages: 20 Download
Still-to-day «financing gap models» are currently utilized to calculate the need of foreign resources to fill the gap between the required investment and available resources in the short-run. The macroeconomic rationale for aid relates to its ability to increase domestic savings (savings gap), foreign exchange (external gap) and government revenue (fiscal gap) in order to achieve the target growth rate. Yet, financial gap growth models fail the large majority of the empirical tests performed since the early nineties. The new paradigm argues that aid is effective to close the gap in the long-run only if domestic policies are appropriate to mobilize domestic private savings, to create a macroenvironment conducive to export growth/import substitution and to improve public expenditure management (policy gap models).
Università di massa e formazione scientifica: una struttura utopica
by Piero Giarda pages: 18 Download
The Italian university system has progressively evolved from a university for few to a mass university. Its productive structure has only partially adapted to such evolution: a growing supply is accompanied by a large number of dropouts. Traditionally, a state run university system requires all units to operate with the same output mix, inclusive of general education and higher education. The result is poor resource allocation in face of the many and diverse objectives of university education. One better, utopian system, envisages a large number of universities devoted to general education and a small number supplying higher education. General education at the undergraduate level would be provided according to merit-oriented admittance rules. Teaching would adjust to the different talents of the students and thus reduce the number of dropouts. Differentiation in the supply mix of different universities is a necessary condition to reach the social objectives of mass education and development of individual talents.
Il trasporto pubblico locale: studio di una caso in una prospettiva storica
by Giancarlo Graziola pages: 26 Download
The present phase of liberalization of local public transport in European countries and in Italy marks the end of a cycle which began at the turn between XIX and XX centuries. After a summary of its developments in European countries and in the United States, we look carefully at its developments in Italy, where they have been overlapping for most time with the institution of Municipal firms. We rely heavily on a case study, on the ground that it could shed light on the rest of the sector. The paper concludes with some conclusions relevant for the present policy debate on local public transport in Italy.
I differenziali salariali tra mercato e regolazione
by Claudio Lucifora pages: 12 Download
The scientific contribution of Giancarlo Mazzocchi paid particular attention to the analysis of wage determination and wage differentials within the functioning of the labour market. In this note we intend to review the main features characterising the lines of research of Mazzocchi with particular reference to his contribution to labour studies and wage determination. At the same time, we shall attempt to link the main issues emerging from the old debate to the new perspectives on labour market research.
Indicatori di vulnerabilità economica e tenore di vita delle famiglie in Lombardia
by Giuseppina Malerba pages: 30 Download
The aim of this paper is the definition and measurement of the concept of vulnerability between families in a relatively high income region of Italy. Poverty tends to be a multi-dimensional concept and the use of monetary income as a single measure of welfare can be misleading. The concept of equality of living standards is a more correct definition, but it is far more elusive. Using a national poverty line as targeting for social policies might introduce inequality between regions and families who face different cost of living. Indicators of vulnerability can have significant advantages over income testing in the identification of eligibility rules to relieve immediate poverty and to prevent it in the longer term.
Il finanziamento dell’istruzione
by Vito Moramarco pages: 20 Download
Competition between public and independent schools and universities can improve the quality of education. The paper compares the different systems of education in OECD countries and argues that in some cases, such as Italy, a major reform should be carried out. Public intervention should be designed not just on the basis of the standard market failure approach, but by searching an optimal blend between individuals’ free choice and paternalism.
Dal PIM alla «Metropoli provinciale». Trent’anni di ipotesi finanziarie associate a un sogno: la Città Metropolitana di Milano
by Giancarlo Pola pages: 22 Download
The paper stresses the financial aspects of building and organizing, in Italy, a Metropolitan City, typically represented by Milan. It starts by recalling the theoretical insights dealt with in a contribution written over thirty years ago by Giancarlo Mazzocchi, when the implementation of the «dream» appeared feasible starting from the Milan Intercommunal Plan (PIM). It goes on adding excerpts of the Author’s own contribution to the theme dating back to early nineties, when the Citta` Metropolitana was added to the existing sets of Italy’s decentralized levels of governments by the innovative Act 142/90. It then raises the problem of how large the financial needs for investments in infrastructures of a new «Milano-City» (embracing the whole province) would be and how they would be met. Lastly, it envisages a future setting around not only an economic, but also a social optimum.
La difficile concorrenza nelle reti d’accesso e il ruolo dell’unbundling
by Enzo Pontarollo pages: 18 Download
The paper analyses the two alternative models of competition, which have been promoted by the Regulatory Authorities in fixed telecommunications. The facility-based competition requires the new entrants to build their own infrastructures, in order to be independent from the network of the incumbent, while in the service-based model, the new entrants provide their services using the incumbent’s network. Both models have pros and cons and the regulators have tried to combine the advantages of both of them. However, enduring economic bottlenecks remain in fixed telecom networks, mainly in the local loop, where infrastructure-based competition is unlikely to emerge, due to the fundamental economics of building competing infrastructures. Therefore, the Regulatory Authorities have imposed the local loop unbundling (LLU) in order to speed up the development of broadband services. However, further steps may be necessary to ensure that LLU is really successful, allowing the development of competitive markets.
Nazionalizzazioni, privatizzazioni e concorrenza: materia per una Costituzione?
by Pippo Ranci pages: 10 Download
The Italian constitution does not mention competition. A statement in favour of an economy based on free markets could be introduced, but the European Treaties provide a sufficient integration. The Italian constitution considers the public enterprise as the remedy to excessive market power and the instrument to achieve social goals. The reasons in favour of public enterprise are much weaker today than they were when the Constitution was written in 1947: global markets and antitrust policy provide competition, capital is available for investment, regulation helps in reconciling private enterprise with services of general interest. The main de facto arguments for public enterprise are (a) the need to provide appropriate shareholders to essential facilities, (b) inertia (since public enterprises exist, the burden of proof lies on the side of privatisation) and (c) the debated link between national ownership and the national interest.
La programmazione della politica agricola italiana nella seconda metà degli anni ’70: una retrospettiva di problemi e soluzioni
by Giuseppe Ricci pages: 12 Download
Italian agricultural sector is called, in the last’s century early seventies, to contribute in getting out from economic crisis utilizing programming procedures formuled by experts. Along with the economic crisis comes a political crisis and in such scenery the communist party obtains a strong electoral results on regional base. Thanks to which it becomes a relative majority party. The cultural procedures delivered by some experts give a chance to the main political leaders for a short time supported by communist party to introduce the programming agricoltural policy, in order to eliminate the three main deficits of Italian agriculture: a) food-farming deficit; b) agricultural programming system deficit; d) powerfully presence deficit in European decision process. The removal of such deficits which would convey the crisis behind.
Giancarlo Mazzocchi formatore e guida di un ampio gruppo di economisti
by Orlando Scarpat pages: 6 Download
Mazzocchi pursued along his career three main goals: teaching, researching, and forming of a large team of economists. The four decades of his teaching, always at the Catholic University of Milan, have involved several issues from the Welfare Economics, to the Educational Policy and Metropolitan areas Governance and to Government Finance. As far as the research is concerned, particular emphasis is given to the origin and development of the studies about Productivity increases and wage policy, which very well describe Giancarlo Mazzocchi’s methodology in approaching research matters. These activities had a wide covering in many other fields. A final review regards the main commitment of Giancarlo Mazzocchi: forming and leadership of a large team of economists, and their approach to the major historical events that marked the birth of crucial social issues.
Forme di equità nella sfera di azione della tutela della salute
by Severino Sterpi pages: 24 Download
Equity and equality in health care and health are aims that pertain to a specific sphere of justice. Equity in health care (same cares for the same needs) is a hard goal because of a series of factors that differentiate the real access to the providers (i.e. the personal revenue and culture). Otherwise, equality of health is an impossible and non recommendable aim even in case of equity of access, because of the biological, irreducible differences between individuals, and the role of the individual utility functions. Public policies towards the best conceivables states of equity and approximate equality of health must frequently trade-off between equity and allocative efficiency. At the micro level, the possible improvements in the efficiency of providers and in the contractual relationships between patients, providers and insurers could free resources and avoid selections of patients and cares that are very difficult to accept on the ethical and political ground.
Il governo della città: una riforma tradita
by Giacomo Vaciago pages: 12 Download
A radical reform improved the government of towns and cities in Italy at the start of the 1990’s. Mayors were elected by citizens; they appointed their own executives and received «guides and checks» from Councils. That model had nevertheless already started to worsen at the end of the 1990’s. Collusion between politics and administration was returning and town and city councils became increasingly less useful. Further examples of this deterioration in urban governance are seen in the legislation (i.e. its steps forwards and backwards) on local public services and cultural heritage.
Utopia e piano processo. Un dibattito sul metodo nella pianificazione urbanistica
by Andrea Villani pages: 22 Download
In the mid Sixties, there has been a strong debate about the governance of the urban development of Milan and its metropolitan area. Two alternative models proposed put forward contrasting views. On one side, those who supported the opportunity of a planning based on great transport infrastructures, to predetermine the outcome of the urban development. On the opposite side, those who thought that such a goal was neither correct nor politically attainable, and stressed instead the importance of process planning. The debate did neither consider the consequences of the implementation, nor the problems involved in the management of each model. This debate anticipated an analogous one both at theoretical and political level in the field of urban planners in the Western world.