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Digital issue
issue 2 - 2008
publisher Vita e Pensiero
format Digital issue | Pdf

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Il sistema dei permessi negoziabili per la gestione dell’acqua: un’analisi dei principali casi di studio
by Simone Borghesi pages: 22 € 6.00
In the last few years, the increasingly problematic issues of water scarcity and pollution have led to a rise in the application of tradable permits to the water sector. However, a critical evaluation of their application is still missing from the literature. To overcome this problem, the present work aims at providing a critical survey of the main schemes of tradable water abstraction rights and pollution rights in operation in various countries. The advantages and disadvantages that emerge in each case are emphasised, in order to explain fully to what extent this market instrument can be employed in the water sector, and thus derive useful indications for future applications. Despite the potential benefits of tradable permits and the success reported in some contexts, from the present casestudy analysis it turns out that several factors, including lack of sufficient market competition, may sometimes hinder their functioning in practice.
Complementarities and Substitutabilities in Matching Models
by Gabriele Cardullo pages: 19 € 6.00
In a standard search and matching model the labor market presents frictions while in the competitive product market the demand is infinitely elastic. To have a more realistic framework, some macroeconomic models abandon the assumption of infinite elasticity and consider a two-tier productive scheme in the goods market. In this paper, it is shown that, under some reasonable assumptions about the final goods production function (for instance Cobb-Douglas technology) the unique equilibrium of this kind of model features no production and full unemployment, making them useless for any policy analysis. A comparison between the two frameworks shows that a standard matching model overestimates the impact in terms of employment of any policy intervention in the sector where such a policy has been promoted, while at the same time it ignores the effects that emerge in other sectors of the economy.
Valore aggiunto comunale: integrazione tra fonti e approccio bottom-up
by Alessandro Faramondi pages: 31 € 6.00
Important institutional reform has taken place in Italy in recent years. The role of local authorities has been increased, and micro level statistical information has become a very important tool supporting decision-taking processes undertaken by policy makers. Economic aggregates are relevant for carrying out analysis at a geographical level. The aim of this paper is to define and test a new method of calculating value added at the municipality level, using a source integration system and a bottom-up approach
Human Capital and Productivity Growth in Italian Regional Economies: A Sectoral Analysis
by Sergio Lodde pages: 23 € 6.00
This paper examines the relationship between human capital and productivity growth with reference to Italian regions, testing the neoclassical and the Schumpeterian hypotheses by means of sectoral data. The former stresses the accumulation of human capital as a determinant of growth, while the latter emphasizes the role of its stock. We expect the Schumpeterian approach to be more relevant in the industrial sector where the most important growth determinant is innovation. The results do not confirm our expectations: in the industrial sector the neoclassical hypothesis is clearly rejected by the data. Separating out the technical component of human capital provides some support for the Schumpeterian hypothesis, although results are not robust to changes in model specification. In the service sector a positive effect of human capital accumulation is found for the whole sector but its explanatory power decreases considerably in the marketable services branch.
Part-time Work and Wage Penalty Trend among Italian Women
by Giuliana Parodi, Dario Sciulli pages: 27 € 6.00
This paper studies the evolution of the full-time/part-time wage differential among Italian women for the period 1993-2004. A generalized Heckman selection model is applied to estimate the wage equations, controlling for endogeneity in the second step. An observed part-time wage penalty is found. However, using the Oaxaca decomposition technique we actually find a (decreasing) wage premium for part-timers. This can be explained either in terms of over-payment of given characteristics or in terms of the values of the discrimination and the selection components. The individuals’ choice concerning their own type of contract appears to be important in determining the sign and the extent of the wage gap.