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Digital issue
issue 3 - 2010
publisher Vita e Pensiero
format Digital issue | Pdf

Ebook format Pdf readable on these devices:


On Labour Shares in Recent Decades: A Survey
by Luciano Boggio, Vincenzo Dall'Aglio, Marco Magnani pages: 51 € 6.00
ABSTRACT We survey the rich literature studying the behaviour of labor shares in recent decades. To explain their dynamics – the main feature being the decline of European and American shares starting in the 1980s – such literature considers models that use either neoclassical or Leontief-type production functions, with both perfectly competitive markets and monopolistic competition coupled with bargaining between firms and workers. These empirical studies in general have produced results that are not very robust. However, they suggest that technical change has a negative and significant impact on the labor share. Evidence for a negative effect of globalization variables is clearly revealed for developing countries, whilst for advanced countries, this effect finds less support. Also, they show that product and labor market regulation issues have mixed effects on the labor share. An alternative to the econometric explanation of labor share is given in the final section. Key words: Factor shares, functional income distribution. JEL Classification: E24, E25.
The Democratic Road to Socialism
by Bruno Jossa pages: 20 € 6.00
ABSTRACT Two main subjects are dealt with in this paper: the democratic road to socialism in Marx and Engels’s works and, more generally, a feasible transition to a new social order. Starting out from the Marxian definition of revolution as the transition from one production mode to another, the author expatiates on different possible modes of transition. Marx and Engels often declared themselves in favour of a transition realised through a worker management of firms, and one purpose of this article is to suggest that the establishment of a system of producer cooperatives would be the correct way out of capitalism. Key words: socialism, marxism, cooperative firms. JEL Classification: P13, P2, B14, B51, J54.
Environmental Labelling: Issues of Enforcement and Approval of Uniform Standards
by Laura Meraviglia pages: 24 € 6.00
ABSTRACT This paper has two parts. In the first, theoretical, section it explores issues concerning the enforcement of a mandatory environmental scheme in which firms make decisions about compliance by considering both the expected fines in the case of cheating, and the costs of compliance. Two alternative scenarios are considered: mutual exclusiveness vs. coexistence of public and private standards. The second part investigates the possibility of setting up a common environmental standard across countries. Two main variables influence the advantage of any country in adopting a common standard: the nature of environmental damage (local vs. trans-frontier) and the relative efficiency of domestic firms. Analysis has revealed on the one hand how the advantage of complying with the standard may differ widely across countries, and on the other which factors must be taken into consideration when setting up a single standard. Key words: Environmental labelling, regulatory governance, enforcement, compliance, common environmental standard. JEL Classification: D21 F53 K42 Q28.
Individual Rights and Duties in Health Policy
by Gilberto Muraro, Vincenzo Rebba pages: 18 € 6.00
ABSTRACT A growing body of thought in the literature and the policy debate is calling for eligibility criteria and funding methods in healthcare to be predicated on individual responsibility. To date this approach has had no tangible impact on public health systems: the choice adopted is to avoid discrimination in access to health services, while instead emphasising public intervention intended to influence behaviour. As regards forms of intervention, we observe the expansion of the standard instruments: mandatory rules, information, education, subsidies and taxes. However, a new approach is also emerging. This is labelled «libertarian paternalism» to indicate that it pursues an acceptable compromise between the corrective objective and respect for the freedom of individual choice. We argue that this road should be pursued cautiously, with prior assessment and ex-post evaluation of the impact of intervention designed to affect individual behaviour, through an appropriate adaptation of the traditional criteria of cost-effectiveness analysis. Key words: Individual behaviour, individual responsibility, health promotion, libertarian paternalism, cost-effectiveness analysis. JEL Classification: I12, I18, H51.