Tutti i libri editi da Vita e Pensiero - libri Rivista internazionale di Scienze Sociali (549)

Vita e Pensiero

Protocollo di Luglio e crescita economica: l’occasione perduta digital Protocollo di Luglio e crescita economica: l’occasione perduta
Year: 2005
The paper aims at explaining the ineffectiveness of the tripartite social pact of July 1993 (the so-called July Protocol) in fostering growth, further to curbing inflation and favouring employment. In the light of labour productivity dynamics, wage moderation after 1993 appears as a significant wage deflation. In an economy with relevant segments sheltered from international competitiveness, privatisations and wage deflation have combined in favouring rent accumulation; so that, unexpectedly, wage moderation has combined with a sensible competitive loss and with slow growth. Changes in the fundamental relationships among growth, profits, investment and employment show deterioration in the quality of new jobs and an employment-productivity tradeoff, which are discussed with refer- ence to innovation, workplace re-organisation and relational goods accumulation. Within the industrial relations system, major shortcomings can be traced to the poor engagement of social partners in preserving the credibility of the Pact. The concluding recommendations aim at resolving the incompleteness of the Protocol, and helping the Italian economy to enter the «high road» to competitiveness.
€ 6.00
Countrymetrics: valutazione della performance economica e tecnologia dei paesi e posizionamento dell’Italia digital Countrymetrics: valutazione della performance economica e tecnologia dei paesi e posizionamento dell’Italia
Year: 2005
International markets crises following recent events such as terrorist attacks, wars in the East, growing financial globalisation and integration raised an interest in the analysis of country risk among industrialised countries as well as developing nations. This paper develops new measures of economic and technological performances of countries by means of a systemic approach based on combinations of several indices. A comparative analysis using data from 51 countries for the period 2000-2002 identifies the countries with high/low performances. The results are substantially stronger and quicker than those obtained by conventional indicators. Moreover, results show Italy’s low economic and technological performances with respect to other developed countries.
€ 6.00
Learning to Coordinate whit Heterogeneous Belief-Formation digital Learning to Coordinate whit Heterogeneous Belief-Formation
Year: 2005
Experiments show that players with identical information and objectives have heterogeneous behavior rules. We formulate how different beliefs arise from the same information and analyze how heterogeneous belief formation affects learning outcomes of two-person two-action coordination games. With heterogeneous belief formation, it is possible to generate enough diversity in actions for eventual coordination, which is impossible under the ordinary adaptive learning model. When each player uses the same function to compute a belief over time, diversity of belief formation functions within or across populations is suffcient for convergence to coordination. When players choose belief-formation functions as well as actions over time, diverse adjustment of belief-formation functions is suffcient. A risk-dominant equilibrium is more likely to emerge than a payoff-dominant equilibrium since the former is more likely to be predicted by the players.
€ 6.00
Are Human Rights Becoming Burdensome for Our Economies? The Role of Slavery-Like Practices in the Development of World Economics and in the Context of Modern Society digital Are Human Rights Becoming Burdensome for Our Economies? The Role of Slavery-Like Practices in the Development of World Economics and in the Context of Modern Society
Year: 2005
The article analyzes some recent episodes concerning slavery-like practices and human trafficking reports. The problem seems particularly crucial in the industrialized world where the flow of illegal migrants is directed. After a summary of the international covenants concerning slavery and its unethical aspects, a sociological explanation of the phenomenon will be proposed. Besides the obvious economical benefits of disposing of low-wage workers in a highly competitive environment, we will try to understand the «social functions» of slavery today. The structure of modern society is the result of a long historical evolution. Yet, modern society is also full of contradictions. Social stability and cohesion are based upon a hierarchical organization in which some individuals or groups occupy the lowest levels of the social ladder. Today, this position is covered by the «new slaves». In this perspective, slavery appears to be both «necessary» and «compulsory» in enhancing social unity and identity.
€ 6.00
Recensioni digital Recensioni
Year: 2005
€ 6.00
L’accordo di Luglio del 1993 alla prova dei fatti. Un’introduzione digital L’accordo di Luglio del 1993 alla prova dei fatti. Un’introduzione
Year: 2005
This introduction provides a survey of the collected papers. At the same time it develops an critical analysis designed to illustrate the file rouge which links the material included in this special issue.
€ 6.00
Competitività e divari di efficienza nell’industria italiana digital Competitività e divari di efficienza nell’industria italiana
Year: 2005
This paper assesses the role of competition in explaining efficiency in the Italian manufacturing industries. Technical efficiency differentials are measured by applying the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method on a panel of firms from 43 industries at 3- digit level, over the 1983-1991 period. The average level of efficiency of each industry is then related through econometric techniques to some factors reflecting the degree of competition. Economic literature states that a tougher competitive environment is efficiency enhancing and we find a negative link between efficiency and concentration. Moreover, efficiency declines more slowly when the level of concentration is higher, whereby suggesting a non-linear relationship. These results have policy implications. The processes of liberalisation and privatisation in Italy should take into account the benefical effects of a more competitive environment.
€ 6.00
Investire per un turismo di élite o di massa: un modello dinamico digital Investire per un turismo di élite o di massa: un modello dinamico
Year: 2005
In this paper we investigate the convenience for a destination to specialize in mass-tourism or in élite-tourism. We take a micro-economic dynamic perspective, and propose a theoretical model, able to explain the switch in this kind of specialization, which is easily observed in several cases. We also study the case in which it is possible for a destination to select a combination between mass – and élite – tourism and we characterize the optimal degree of composition between these two extreme cases.
€ 6.00
The Impact of International Economic Sanctions on Trade Empirical Evidence over the Period 1960-2000 digital The Impact of International Economic Sanctions on Trade Empirical Evidence over the Period 1960-2000
Year: 2005
International economic sanctions are a recurring feature of political interactions. This paper provides, through a gravity model approach, an estimation of the impact of sanctions on international trade. The study reports panel estimates between the US and 49 target countries over the period 1960- 2000, inclusive. The results show that extensive sanctions have a large negative impact on bilateral trade, while this is not the case for limited and moderate sanctions. A second estimation focuses on the impact of unilateral US sanctions on bilateral trade between target countries and the other G-7 countries. The results show that unilateral extensive sanctions have also a large negative impact, while limited ones induce a slight positive effect on other G-7 countries trade. In the first case the hypothesis of negative ‘network effects’ is confirmed, while in the latter the sanctions-busting argument should be defended.
€ 6.00
Voting on Mass Immigration Restriction digital Voting on Mass Immigration Restriction
Year: 2005
We study how immigration policies are determined under voting in a two-country model where immigration redistributes income from wages to capital. Migration decisions are endogenous, there exist border enforcement costs and preference for home-country consumption. We model the migration policy as a pure entry rationing rather than a necessarily porous screening system. Unlike the existing results of polarization, our findings show that preferences over frontier closure are distributed on a continuum, going from total closure to total openness. Thus, the Condorcet winning immigration policy may well be an interior solution. Our results fit the real-life observation that both perfect closure and perfect openness are rare events. We also study the case of a referendum over two alternative policies and show that its outcome depends upon the location of the median voter with respect to the individual indifferent between the two alternatives.
€ 6.00

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